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In Latin. See LIVE. Alibi is a legal term. Government some alibi for unpopular tion. It is a de. Many people seem un- else than at the scene of a crime when it aware that all right is composed of two was committed. The phrase source. An alibi is frequently misspelled. See AC- parts of the U. Outside of the legal commu. Merriam-Webster has viewed it differ- ently: See LOT.
So on four networks we hear these an- lating spoken slang. See Anachronism. Wrong use. Already 1. See Confus- satisfactory. And the fact that some All together adjective phrase means permissive dictionaries condone the mis.
See WITH. For instance: It is ing pairs. The in. Already and all Placement. An starting a sentence with also: The next paragraph: But Rep. See 3. This is typical: Actually that sentence de. Placement are synonyms for also and can be more The placement of also. As it Inasmuch as no one else was fined stands. Gorbachev appears to form when the first is right. A news be carrying out his pledge to make agency reported a prison sentence for a sizeable cuts in Soviet Forces in East- man paid to influence an attorney gen.
Robert ———. But use one at a time. The new Central Park Zoo will also The passage illustrates another jour- have an underwater window to see nalistic peculiarity: The first sentence their polar bears. The misguided belief that compound The chairman of the House Armed verbs may not be split sometimes leads a Services Committee says Soviet Presi- writer or editor to choose the second dent Mikhail S. These knocking over trees. A different misuse of also.
If the first of the two sentences told of. Wrong use against him. A quotation from a magazine illus. Synonyms Too. That is not what also means. Les Aspin. The sample has another fault: To start a sentence with also is a jour. It per- HAS. See Confusing pairs. See RACE glish adjective postmeridian: Clarity ambiguity de- fined. Introduction tains to a plural noun. Run-on sentence. Synonymic silliness.
It pertains possessive. See Adjectives and ad. Double fruit. In his sentence. Wounded Words 65 words listed. He could have THAT. See A. See Homo. A accompanied by but also. It represents the period from immedi-. Capone died in Leakey went to Tanganyika. Illogical captions 1. Untrue dialogue. The treaty was with Russia. Greek for time. Steve C——.. Tanganyika and Zanzibar. Tools were first recognized by Louis p. See A and AN. That is an example of an anachro. Retroactive reti. Having set an action in the past.
To avoid confusion. The writer has in time.. Historical revision. Midnight ends a day. A television misinterpreted as an abbreviation of interviewee said Al Capone. But nisms are inevitable in fiction represent. Illogical captions. Tanzania Anachronism.
The statement involves sev. One could speak also of now President Clinton. He held those offices at two going to the other extreme: Sidney Wolfe says costs though such use of now. Excess ments. The allegation has not worry about the bills—the govern- been proved. And Dr. It can associ- independent counsel Donald Smaltz is ate that sentence with a related one investigating a charge made by a for.
By a decade or two. See also Tense for discussion of the proper and improper mixing of time ele. The purpose of a while Clinton was governor of new paragraph is to separate its idea Arkansas. Among pedagogic rules that went too far was the one that forbade anyone to 3. And Wolfe cautions that with more 4.
But on rare occa- sions such use of And may be warranted Impossible. See also FOR. Anyone who does not know that And the trend toward greater special- Bill Clinton was elected president would ization. Retroactive retitling start a sentence with And. Untrue dialogue doctors now owning a share in new In portrayals of historical eras on tele. Few if any This sentence was attributed to a pupils thought to say. Then the present tense would not be forced into a role it could not fulfill.
See Se. I nominate lunaversary. The pre- 2. Some question its use with un- the revolution. Sometimes and is incorrectly re. Two-week dotos. Both words are Greek in origin. An antidote is a month. One television Although a flexible word. An irrational avoidance of year anniversary. Latin for moon. See THAT. Another adjective and Occasionally the two words are pronoun is paradoxical. This dialogue was said to phasizing similarity.
If enough people deem it important An anecdote is a short. A lesser period than a year may be commemorated in other ways: It allows poison. The prefix lished. Lack fix. It is correct to say. The suffix. What is question- prior restraint reached its two-week an.
The second is from antido. One in every seven They all spoke nonsense. The word often is watered down. Another ber of words in use. Attorney William ——— said The number of words in use with full here last night he anticipates dropping entries in the OED is That is the primary meaning of its En.
The Latin verb antici. Nor does the those things? Or does it mean that he is second category match the first: The making the necessary preparations? An- It is to act in advance of an event. One of these. See ticularly in informal conversation. This sentence. Any can be an adverb. In general your liking? You may choose. As a single word. Any as an adjective has these mean- thor could write what he wanted. Each pair will be choice depends on personal preference.
In general. With WAY. There was no cause for anxiety. ONE as time. As it stands. In the pronuncia- Anywhere should have no s attached. If rhythm or conciseness matters. See also Double negative. A book says: The use of any with a superlative. If he ings: As a pronoun. The au.
With MORE. One who is writing has Acme illogically remains in the same more resources and less cause to take lib. Pick any or all—or neither.
With TIME. Pro- place as a noun. With MORE that meaning with anywhere. Some authorities in. Street signs say. Then it goes in a strictly. Some author- wrongly connected any and more: The one-word form has not sist on any more in all uses. See also ONE as pronoun. It combination a time-honored idiom. As one word.
Any and body are kept separate when And note that it always ends a thought. It shares 3. Travis said. A critic When any more means an indefinite writes. It is should be: An example comes Any and one are kept separate when from a radio talk show. They are our closest relatives in the apparent homicide. Wednesday morning. The word it. If the are the bonobo. Anyway should have no s attached. Apes have more complex apparently lost control and crashed brains and can stand and walk nearly his vehicle.
A driver had monkeys do. The designation of all nonhuman Proposition E.
Apes do not have tails. Ap- parent adjective has two nearly contra- 6. With WAY dictory meanings. Both ape and monkey belong to the order Primates.
Two men were apparently killed in Let it be said here that a chimpanzee is separate shooting incidents. See Verbal unmention- kept detached in this sentence: The single word must be an adverb. Its purpose is not always ap- key! Police are investigating upright.
A woman said in a television inter. An aroma is a president of this news.
It stresses evidence. See Plurals and singu. Probable or probably ap. I and are A news service reported that William do not mix. It may be spicy or pungent. Stink and stench dio advice program said. Porter said with a grin. That tion of am not. An editorial complains about panhandlers at rail stations: Scent sug-. To ap. It casual remarks and profound writings could signify that the diagnosis was ob.
Any of four other words could have praised that our marriage was having been chosen: Smell and odor can be some rocky points. The quoted tion. Lack of a pair. Chinese government stated that Wan had cut short a U.
The peasant alliance. Wan too is said to be receiving medical treatment. With WELL. It starts many an un. We are forced into a guessing game. See Con. I 2 the writer. Again we turn medical treatment.
Excessive use. Odorous usually is unpleasant. See WAR. Wan is not seriously ill. Actually the reasons were po- fusing pairs. We are guessing what the facts and fragrant refer to pleasant-smelling are. With NOT. A possible revision tives are related to five of them: Aromatic follows.
Put each idea into a We have discussed seven nouns. So is any phrase combining as Articles parts of speech. See A and and a misplaced verb. Idiom The sentence can be fixed in either of calls for an as. The sentence gether ideas. They sur. In journalese it is a favorite conjunction for stringing to. Fast or to just one as per sentence: Several words must sometimes sepa- As is used as a conjunction in the ex. Commas are acceptable in this way: This is amples above.
Costs of health plans are climbing 2. It is also classified as an from another TV program: The message becomes less unwieldy. The Why does everything need to be packed necessary second as is missing: Try chopping the sen. Lack of a pair American potable as cheap. In the ex- ample below. The assessment was borne out by Another problem is the faulty youthful protesters today as they sur. Excessive use nearly twice as much at midsized A mere two letters long.
A correction: See also THAN. You can say ei. Though forced to In a negative comparison. Literally the sentence is express. Was the the context suggests the reverse. The VA considers alcoholism willful A personal pronoun following misconduct.
This is an example of its distinctive A construction that can be confusing use: Plenty of it remained at the editors. The competing product is have been intended. The second This was stated in a news broadcast as means though. The number of the verb remains reformers think.
Whatever the message sive. With NOT meant and not only. Gertrude is going to a fact already pher writes: I shivered. See the only other verb in the sentence is also Pronouns.
As well as im- ing the negative. Either add a verb. Orm had not used unntill as the ful as well as strong. Like a preposi. At other times. It should in a movie.
When you liken. Nor do most people in colloquial speech. Besides would go with climb. Like is not acceptable in these sen- out replacement for and. Tonight it will cool off. Assembly Judiciary Committee. As well. Incomparability conjunction introduces a clause. Some authorities defend such us- 1. In the first and second of the three sam- ing.
Sometimes when like is needed. Among examples: Both should not go with as well as. In the third. Shakespeare and other celebrated. Sometimes tences. But after generations of insistence Like is proper in this sentence: Confusion age. He looked like he had put on some of the weight he had lost.
See BOTH. In this sentence. The grammarian H. To match covered. See FAR. See Crimes. The differences. Do not omit the t and the period. In a re- The writer seems to be likening a time to port on a fire. Comparative and superlative de. More about AS- from a report on a flood. See Numbers. Like the days before interstate travel. No superlative. This sentence is defective: Usually form: Lawyer may be used in the more specific sense too: See AS.
In its narrower sense. See Adjectives got a lot more cars than we need. The sentence assured the senator that the troops ought to read. More than twenty years later. Obviously the time is the pre- ciety of the United States. A variation came from an ex- congressman: The judge in a trial often ad- end a strike.
See Tense. Just leaving out used by British insurance companies. The sentence should have read school districts said. A lawyer is a person whose profession is the practice of law. One who acts as an attorney is usually—but not necessarily—a lawyer. Consti- spokesman for major league baseball tution. You do not just would be a good replacement. Counsel can be singular or said. Once in Awhile.
Organizations and govern. See Homo- phones. In Virginia the assembly actually gained the upper hand for awhile. See Collective nouns. Each should have been given the indefinite article a with the noun For awhile. Pietsch en- tirely recovered his sense of humor. Awhile can stay in each.
See WAKE. See Modifiers. Charm fusing pairs. It was awhile before Mr. It is simply a matter of idiom. Not so. See Confusing the knack. MEAN know things. What does his Ohio origin or his kin- ments award people honors and money. AWAKE etc. One could say instead that it Koppel let it slide for awhile. See are from daily newspapers.
Three within his grasp. Using it that unhappy with their present agents. Either awhile or for a while would be unquestionably correct. One who has been bereaved adjective. Unifying the words elorette and the synonymous bachelor would indicate that the first syllable girl. A divorced person. The same goes for back room: It has to do At least two dictionaries recognize bach. In a phrase like backyard of a spouse and who has not remarried barbecue.
Neither words: The way. In some contexts. Numerous dictio. A monly called single. It is male can be a plain bachelor. She is a woman beyond to news of the crack cocaine epidemic in the usual age for marrying who has not Jacksonville. Any unmarried status is com. But only a and the same is true for back room. Of course a college graduate of ei. Generally either backward or back. All of the samples Backstretch and backwoods. California political consultant Stu ache. Both adjectives secutive terms.
In the fourth example. Richard Cheney backdrop. As Trying for a comeback is Maurice adjectives. The idiom sampled The compulsion to write backward is earlier is quintessential journalese. Some causes and cures. Reversed are appear now and then.
Looking-glass syndrome lived. An inver- BACK time. The normal sequence of a declarative space. Turvy Reasonable inversions of other types topsy turned are idioms. Journalese is it. Fishing for trout with Baker during ter has an alternate form: Often the first part of a sentence is a normal quotation.
The lat. Backward run often sentences. Not not known to reach such an extreme. His problem is to coming up. Our third quo. Any method that sets the white Ferre is trying for a comeback. Another explanation is a verb and an adverb is twisted around. In an article about attitudes toward divorce.
One resistant bacteria can become back. Germanisms that distorting sentences helps to make Sometimes a simple phrase containing writing readable. The persistence and ubiquity of in. Ex- In a typical case. The re- porter could have written something like 2. Our first two examples can be re. But he could start with a phrase verses the normal positions of adjective like Those booked were and not have to and noun. It is New Latin. The excerpts are from a television fea- tation in section 1 is brief but abridged.
This is more likely: One who is ill tered and will contain two movie the- or unhappy feels bad. Band-Aid is a brand of toilet in speaking of the plumbing device adhesive bandage with gauze in the cen. It is common in scribing reaction to a change in the pres.
Merchants and residents feel badly The mother of two young sons. Calling a room with same mistake on television. Being a phemism. It once meant dressing table. In American culture. Competitors strain of bacteria has caused the out. Then The public place that everyone seeks feel verb would be modified by badly at some time is often called a rest room adverb.
Even though frankness.
Toilet itself used to be a eu- ter. The message is that the indus- vote to re-elect Senator Alan Cranston try has no control over the intellect of its. We do not know. Another quotation illustrates the haz- See Active voice and passive voice. A new California Poll shows that The context points to the second inter- only 20 percent of Californians would pretation. I am cheered to know that it is recast in this way. Collective and. Each word coln Savings and Loan scandal.
See Ho. The context sug. The word causes particular confusion af- What soldiers call a latrine. In a trade junctive. If the enclosure is a small. An informal syn. The information suggests this: It could be interpreted as saying that Thus I am cheered. Take this sentence. DUE TO. The john and the can not brought before the committee be- are slang.
Did the witness testify that as a result of onym there is the loo. The information suggests that circula- in the Lincoln Savings and Loan scan. In Britain you can ask for the w. Latrine is a communal toilet place cause of his involvement in the Lin- in a military type of setting. By itself. The writer comments: Who is talking? This cheers me up because it sug- 1. One could rationally interpret it in either of Only 20 percent of Californians these ways: The point is that the writer.
It ter discusses dealings with radio should not be used as though it were a salesmen. Crotia [sic]—In twice she wrote in an op-ed essay.
It article will follow. A reputable newspaper used one for. The conjunction because means for and marketing. From its looks. The lead paragraph of a newspaper literally meaning to be the father of.
A headline over a letter to soldiers in Bosnia understand. Muslim enclave of Gorazde. Incompatible pairs American official. It is a poetic verb transitive. Either way. An archaic past tense. Otherwise it is like say. It is is began: BED as verb. Not avowedly an edi. Another book of recollections tells of BEST.
Was he amused. It ing fits each. Bemuse verb. The -muse part of each can be traced to Then there is a town. The rule is simple. Joseph T——. He said noth. Gunfighter must have noticed that several of his officers sported shiners.
See Confus- bruises. At one time it meant to beguile or bemuse. The Later he describes the privation after meanings of the two words are not at all weeks of desert travel and adds: But I detected on his seamed face a bemused smile. To get fuel to BEST etc. The context gives no reason why the de- An autobiography describes a gen. Amus- one to muse or be deep in thought. When the merits of two jams. Between can refer to the combined possession of two people or other enti- The policies of the president are the ties.
Ex- distinguish between the prepositions be. A TV newscaster was Correction: There are exceptions. Sometimes between is combined tween pairs. The bread slices are con- candidate and by a senator who used to sidered as pairs.
Thus of cheese to sandwich between many these sentences. The rule is too sweeping. The Constitution authorizes ter. Tom and Dick. That such a combination ap- 1.
In the Harry. Only when there are three or States. The words choose. Between generally applies to two. The same sandwich be a journalist are wrong: Each and between themselves. Comparative and brothers played forty-seven major-league superlative degrees. Between applies to three or more specified things. Two other bi. By including term for a flock of those birds. Biennially adverb is every two co-hosts female and male referred to years.
Instead, the reader is given the neces- You may want to emphasize the doing sary additional connotative informa- and play down the doer. The identity of tion, even if it means devoting a good the doer may be obvious, unknown, in- deal of space to doing so.
That fact package was delivered yesterday. The trouble is just isnt done. If, for instance, the sentence Neolithic stage in culture is character- began in an active voice Instead, we ized by the following important innova- insist on giving the reader the 6 ad and add necessary.
An- It seems as though every piece of writ- other way to correct the sentence is to ing about improving ones English has to make the second part. The book you quires a good deal of space. So a newspaper article on legal En- This is acceptable though not an illus- glish indirectly quotes a judge who tration of energetic reporting : The sus- advises lawyers to write like good news- pect was said to be wanted in three paper reporters: simple and straightfor- states.
This, however, is too clumsy for ward. And ungrammatically? Better: An- a piece that is simplethis word is an other attempt was made to climb the adjective only. But you write simply peak. A passive believed, reported, this word is an adverb only.
Many others will ward may be used either as an adjective not: attempted, begun, forgotten, pro- or as an adverb. See Homophones.
They have one form only. To adapt They are sometimes called flat adverbs. Some writers one would adopt a child. It meaning. Each of these is a combined should have been adopted. By the way, adopted children have And each has an -ly form with a different adoptive parents.
Hyphens should never be attached Adjectives and adverbs. In gen- to adverbs ending in -ly: a strongly eral. Some adjectives end in -ly and 1. In general are subject to hyphenating when at- An adjective describes someone or tached to participles. See Punctuation, something. In terms of grammar, it 4D. Examples Sometimes an adjective is erroneously of adjectives are green, wet, and Euro- used for an adverb and vice versa.
An at- pean. It modi- A psychologist said, Youve done all of fies a verb, an adjective, or another ad- those things that sound wonderfully verb. Examples of adverbs are thinly, instead of wonderful, the adjective. Sound is a linking verb. See Verbs, 1F. Some writers and speakers shovel tween them: We will soon know the re- them out when the unadorned facts sults. In prose characteristic of vanish. Some writers have the mistaken supermarket tabloids, a reporter said on notion that an adverb cannot split a verb a television network, Amazing new re- phrase, such as will know or would van- search has led to an astonishing discov- ish.
That notion seems to stem from the ery about the migration of brain cells. The sentence Adjectives or adverbs come up in hun- structure has a Germanic flavor.
Telling dreds of word entries and such topic en- the story orally, the writer would proba- tries as Comparative and superlative bly say her familys home was badly degrees; Comparison; Double negative; damaged.
Joining of words; Modifiers; Modifying; Similarly, a news story in another pa- Nouns; Participle; Possessive problems; per said the stadium measure heavily Series errors; Tautology; Verbs. Better: the stadium mea- sure was heavily favored. Placement An author wrote, I have no great ob- An adjective may go just before the jection to. Better: appeared an attributive adjective ; or it being officially denied.
The adverb normally Contrary to the syntax of many lan- goes after either the first or second auxil- guages, in English we would not be iary, depending on what it is supposed to likely to speak of a bird yellow. Nor- modify. Exceptions You will always be welcome in our are found in poetry, for instance: house.
Here the adverb applies to thy spirit. With its life intense and the whole compound, will be mild. Where to put adverbs often perplexes He will be sharply reprimanded. Typically an adverb goes just be- Here the adverb specially applies to fore a simple verb: They often bring the main verb, reprimanded, and flowers.
It may go at the beginning of a goes right before it. If she failed. The placement of an adverb can dras- An adverb made up of a number of tically affect the meaning of a sentence, words often follows a verb phrase.
I such as this one: A plan for reducing have said it again and again. The sentence is ambiguous. Usually she arrives early and ing the work force or does it mean that bakes the bread. Usually applies to the plan has slowly been prepared? It is a mistake to 8 admission overlook the effect of the adverb on the 2. Make it or fact of being allowed to enter, the He skillfully concluded to avoid say- right to enter, or, loosely, a charge for en- ing, literally, that he skillfully collapsed.
As a rule, an adverb should not sepa- In the sense of entry, admittance is rate a verb from its object. Liza solved similar. It too means the act or fact of be- quickly the puzzle should be Liza ing allowed to enter or the right to enter.
However, admittance usually is limited See also Infinitive, 4; Verbs, 4. Admission often has the added impli- 1. Acknowledgment cation of a privileged entry, as into a When it does not have anything to do group, a profession, or a place of enter- with entry, admission is acknowledg- tainment.
Your admission to the soci- ment that a statement is true, a state- ety has been approved. More- unfavorably on the one making the ac- over, admission may be used figuratively.
The judge permitted the admission of Admission can range in seriousness her testimony. It admissible, meaning able to be accepted can be used in a general sense Taking or admitted.
Hearsay generally is not the Fifth Amendment is not admission of admissible evidence. Admittable is thing acknowledged His admission rare. Han- does not reflect upon you, except per- dled without care.
The word does not fit this sentence, from an 1. And an delphia diners, by their own admis- Oregon newspaper reports on a broker sions, to be the most generous tippers in trouble:. The finding may be based on their own Admit, when used in the sense of ac- accounts, figures, numbers, reports, re- knowledge or confess, should not be fol- sponses, statements, statistics, or words. English idiom allows But it is not based on their own admis- admits wrongdoing or admitting a mis- sions, because being a generous tipper take but not admits to or admitting is not usually considered something to to an action.
Just omitting the to be ashamed of, at least in American soci- will not rescue the second sample. He ety. Advice is the fession: She was admitted to the club noun, meaning an opinion on what to or The state admits to the bar only do about a problem. Im going to the those who pass the examination. Admit lawyer for advice. Advise is the verb, to is correct also in the sense of permit- meaning to recommend or to give ad- ting physical entrance: The gate admits vice.
The lawyer will advise me. Maybe not. A sign in a window of- identification. One problem is her One of the meanings of admit is to name. A sign on a wall calls her Mrs. The word is so Gloria. Admit as a transi- or tell.
It is common in business tive verb can mean also to concede the Please advise which model is de- truth of a trivial allegation or to ac- siredand can suggest business jargon knowledge a shortcoming that is quite when used elsewhere. The press customarily in- The word tempts headline writers by sists on the e spelling. The o spelling is in its brevity and can mislead them and line with the adjective advisory, which is their readers. A headline read, Mon- spelled only that way.
It seemed to say a U. The verb advocate the text said something much different: means to recommend or promote a While acknowledging that a campaign cause. It is a transitive verb only. That finance report of his filed in New Mex- is, it must transmit its action to an ob- ico bore false signatures of two cam- ject. You advocate something. A safer headlineperhaps tions: Herlihy. Omit each for. The man has been advocating the name change.
A policeman used advocate unid- Adverbs. See Adjectives and adverbs. EFFECT: the noun to remember An advocate noun is one who pro- As nouns, the two words are easier to motes a cause or who pleads someones choose between. You will probably want cause, perhaps as an attorney. The sen- to use effect, the result of a cause. She acted as his advocate at the hear- Only psychologists seem to have affec- ing.
It is pronounced with em- As a verb, advocate is pronounced phasis on the first syllable, unlike the AD-vuh-kate. As a noun, it may be pro- other noun and the two verbs. A newspaper ar- Climate of Their Era May Have an ticle used the wrong verb: Affect It [the Senate] is also a position of Another newspaper got both the noun power, an opportunity to effect ones and the verb wrong in the same article: world.
Its not clear what affect the nomi- A senator can affect the world, not ef- nations will have on the polls. The PRI has tried to effect social Similarly, effecting should be affect- policy by driving away poor fami- ing in this sentence, from an editorial in lies. After preposition is some- thing that goes on beneath. Sub- sequent to dinner is no improvement Another meaning of the a verb is to over after dinner. The modest after is feign or give the appearance of some- a useful word on all levels of English, thing.
For example: Actors ably affect though sometimes overused. After conjunction is a well-worn To effect is to bring about, carry out, tool of the press, used to string episodes or accomplish something.
Example of together in reverse chronological order. It is used much less often low, the word is not limited to one use than the other verb.
A state supreme court af- Instead of affect, this headline firmed a robbers conviction, finding that aint 11 a revolver taken from his car without a The gas men returned in the nick of search warrant was valid evidence. Better: C had The first could have used provoke; the used the revolver to rob a gas station second, annoyance, irritation, or vexa- mini-market in Long Beach.