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Erik H. Erikson's remarkable insights into the relationship of life history and history began with observations on a central stage of life: identity. Read "The Life Cycle Completed (Extended Version)" by Erik H. Erikson available from Rakuten Kobo. Sign up today and get $5 off your first download. Read "Erik H. Erikson Explorer of Identity and the Life Cycle" by Richard Stevens available from Rakuten Kobo. Sign up today and get $5 off your first download.
Stagnation 2. Despair and Disgust 3. Epigenetic Diagram of a System of Stages 3. Literature 1.
Introduction Erik H. Erikson — is without a doubt one of the most outstanding psychoanalysts of the last century. On each level, it is required to solve the relevant crisis, embodied by the integration of opposite poles presenting the development tasks, the successful handling of which is in turn of importance for the following phases.
The term crisis does not have a negative connotation for Erikson, but rather is seen as a state, which through constructive resolution leads to further development, which is being integrated and internalized into the own self-image. All of them exist in the beginning in some form. This becomes particularly obvious in the eight psychosocial phases, which now should be the focus of this paper. This demonstrates that Erikson did see development as above all: a lifelong process.
All of a sudden, the child is ripped out of the familiar environment and the bond with the mother is redefined. The sense of basic trust, defined as "an essential trustfulness", develops during this first phase of life, the first year of life, during the so-called oral stage Freud , and is, so Erikson, "the cornerstone of a vital personality".
The child learns the simplest and the earliest modality: to "get", not in its negative sense of unsolicited or forcible taking, but in that of accepting what is given.
She takes on the role of provider the child can rely on. The trust is not just depleted in the person of the mother, but according to Erikson it also refers to the infant himself. In the second half of the first year of life, according to Erikson, a first crisis does occur.
This crisis appears to consist of the coincidence in time of three developments: On one part of the physiological, namely that the infant experiences the growing need to absorb, appropriate, and observe things, on the other part of a psychological development, namely the growing realization of being an individual. The third development is dependent on the environment, as evidently the mother seems to turn away from the child and to focus on other activities.
The child can possibly interpret this turning away as a withdrawal of motherly love. If basic trust was built, there is a predominantly optimistic attitude towards other people.
If this basic trust is lacking, there is the risk of developing a general basic mistrust, not just towards the world, but also towards oneself. A severely damaged basic trust, or one that is not formed in the first place, can lead to psychic disorders like depression. The positive experiences, such as feelings of security, warmth, dependability, attentiveness, and devotion should outweigh negative experiences and frustration, such as having to wait for the satisfaction of needs, disappointment, solitude, disregard, or physical pain.
Naturally, frustration cannot be avoided completely in childhood. According to Erikson it is important, however, that not only positive experiences predominate in order to develop a sense of trust, but that the sum of trust that a child takes away from these early experiences does not absolutely depend on the quantity, but rather the quality of the mother-child-relationship.
So this is the beginning — the coming together of an infant, a pair of parents, and a society, in an act of faith and trust. The child is offered two modalities: holding on and letting go. Moreover, he is able to control bowel and bladder movement on his own. A particular, however not exclusive role is hereby given to the excretory organs; not without a reason, psychoanalysis has termed this stage the anal phase Freud.
The ability to control the bodily excretory function means wellbeing for the child, so Erikson. Moreover, control means, at least in Western cultures, praise from the part of reference persons, which "at first must make up for quite frequent discomfort and tension suffered as the bowels learn to do their daily work. For the child, controlling the bowel movement is a significant step towards autonomy.
By not having to be changed anymore, the child gets more independent from the parents. This strengthens self-confidence, which is supported by acknowledgement given by the parents at the same time.
Erikson calls this entire life stage a "battle for autonomy". The child begins to compartmentalize his world in "I", "you" and "my". Erikson includes the seemingly contradictory tendencies, like snuggling and pushing away, picking up and dropping, being obedient and being rebellious under the formula of "retentive-eliminative modes". The special emphasis that in this phase is put on autonomy, however, also makes clear what the child is not able to do yet.
Shame and doubt come up, when aspired goals cannot reached yet and the child has the feeling of being made fun of; this can happen, when for example the process of toilet training is done too strictly or too early. This feeling is being reinforced, when parents prove to be unreliable.
In this stage, a balance has to be found between autonomy and dependency. By contrast, as indicated by his book title, Burston has gone after bigger, and in many ways more interesting game.
His book offers something like a psychohistorically informed, anthropological study of Erikson's central role in adding a cornucopia of neo-Freudian perspectives to American culture I believe his book deserves high praise for providing a valuable psychohistorical account of the recent history of both psychoanalysis and psychohistory.
Leon H. Erik Erikson and the American Psyche: It's a monument to a now neglected figure and a demonstration of how quickly intellectual fashion changes and fame flees. Erik Erikson and the American Psyche provides an unparalleled richness to the reader's understanding of Eriksonian development, culture and Erikson's empathy for the human condition.
This book illuminates Erikson's person, placing this psychological giant in context, consistently showing the quality of insight and psychological depth characteristic of Erikson himself. Burston's rich historical research and psychological precision demonstrates how psychobiography should be done, providing us with a unique and substantive portrait of a revered icon of modern psychology. John T. Chirban Daniel Burston has examined Erikson's life story in a remarkably fine book.
However, for such material Burston generously refers readers to Lawrence Friedman's detailed biography of Erikson, as well as works by Paul Roazen, and others. Graduate students, researchers, faculty, and professionals. Lees de eerste pagina's.
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