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Those are its characteristics.
A car can accelerate, stop, signal for a turn, and sound the horn. Those are its behaviors. Those characteristics and behaviors are common to all cars. Although two particular cars in the same parking lot may have different colors, all cars have a color. Using a construct known as a class, OOP enables you to establish the idea of a car as being something with all those characteristics.
A class is a unit of code composed of variables and functions that describes the characteristics and behaviors of all the members of a set. A class called Car would describe the properties and methods common to all cars. In OO terminology, the characteristics of a class are known as its properties. Properties have a name and a value. Some allow their value to be changed; others do not. For example, in the Car class, you would probably have such properties as color and weight.
Although the color of the car can be changed by giving it a new paint job, the tare weight of the car without cargo or passengers is a fixed value. Some properties represent the state of the object. State refers to those characteristics that change because of certain events but are not necessarily directly modifiable on their own. In an application that simulates vehicle performance, the Car class might have a property called velocity.
The velocity of the car is not a value that can be changed on its own, but rather is a by-product of the amount of fuel being sent to the engine, the performance characteristics of that engine, and the terrain over which the car is traveling. The behaviors of a class are known as its methods. Methods of classes are syntactically equivalent to functions found in traditional procedural code. Just like functions, methods can accept any number of parameters, each of any valid data type.
Some methods act on external data passed to them as parameters, but they can also act on the properties of their object, either using those properties to inform actions made by the method such as when a method called accelerate examines the remaining amount of fuel to determine whether the car is capable of accelerating or to change the state of the object by modifying values such as the velocity of the car.
Objects To begin with, you can think of a class as a blueprint for constructing an object.
It merely specifies that those things will exist. Classes work much the same way. The class specifies the behaviors and characteristics the object will have, but not necessarily the values of those characteristics.
An object is a concrete entity constructed using the blueprint provided by a class. The 6 Chapter 1: Introduction to Object-Oriented Programming idea of a house is analogous to a class.
Your house a specific instance of the idea of a house is analogous to an object. With a blueprint in hand and some building materials, you can construct a house. In OOP, when you use the class to build an object, this process is known as instantiation.
This is automatically handled for you by PHP. This data can come from a database, a flat text file, another object, or some other source. A class can never have property values or state.
Only objects can. You must use the blueprint to build the house before you can give it wallpaper or vinyl siding. Similarly, you must instantiate an object from the class before you can interact with its properties or invoke its methods. Classes are manipulated at design time when you make changes to the methods or properties. Objects are manipulated at run-time when values are assigned to their properties, and their methods are invoked.
The problem of when to use the word class and when to use the word object is something that often confuses those new to OOP. After an object is instantiated, it can be put to work implementing the business requirements of the application.
Creating a Class Starting with a simple example, save the following in a file called class. Although not terribly exciting just yet, this is the basic syntax for declaring a new class in PHP. Follow that with the name of the class and braces to indicate the start and end of the code for that class. A good rule to follow is to put each class into its own file and to name that file class. You can instantiate an object of type Demo like this: 7 Part I: Fundamentals of Professional Development To instantiate an object, first ensure that PHP knows where to find the class declaration by including the file containing your class class.
The return value of this statement is assigned to a new variable, objDemo in this example. Remember, a method of a class is basically just a function. PHP does not use the dot operator. Adding a Property Adding a property to your class is just as easy as adding a method. You simply declare a variable inside the class to hold the value of the property. In procedural code, when you want to store some value, you assign that value to a variable. In OOP, when you want to store the value of a property, you also use a variable.
The name of the variable is the name of the property. Open the class. The rewritten sayHello method shows how to access the value of this property. Create a new file called testdemo. The keyword public is used to let the class know that you want to have access to the following variable from outside the class. Some member variables of the class exist only for use by the class itself and should not be accessible to external code; these variables are declared as private or protected more on that later.
In this example, you want to be able to set and retrieve the value of the property name. Note that the way the sayHello method works has changed. Instead of taking a parameter, it now fetches the name value from the property. Previously, you learned that some properties influence the action of certain methods, such as the example in which the accelerate method of the Car class needs to examine the amount of fuel remaining. This fact often causes confusion for those new to PHP.
In addition to the variables that store the values for the properties of the class, other variables may be declared for use by the internal operations of the class. Some of these are accessible to code outside the class in the form of properties.
Others are not accessible and are strictly for internal housekeeping. For example, if the Car class needed to get information from a database for whatever reason, it might keep a database connection handle in an internal member variable. This database connection handle is obviously not a property of the car, but rather something the class needs to carry out certain operations.
Protecting Access to Member Variables As the previous example shows, you can set the value of the name property to just about anything you want — including an object, an array of integers, a file handle, or any other nonsensical value. To work around this problem, always implement your properties in the form of functions called get[ property name ] and set[ property name ]. Such functions are known as accessor methods, and are demonstrated in the following example.
Change class. The underscore is a recommended naming convention to indicate private member variables and functions; however, it is merely a convention — PHP does not require it.
The keyword private protects code outside the object from modifying this value. Private internal member variables are not accessible from outside the class. In this example, an exception is thrown if an invalid value is supplied for the name property. Additionally, the public access specifier for the functions has been added. Public is the default visibility level for any member variables or functions that do not explicitly set one, but it is good practice to always explicitly state the visibility of all the members of the class.
A member variable or method can have three different levels of visibility: public, private, and protected. Public members are accessible to any and all code. Private members are accessible only to the class itself. These are typically items used for internal housekeeping, and might include such things as a database connection handle or configuration information. Protected members are available to the class itself and to classes that inherit from it. Inheritance is defined and discussed in detail later in this chapter.
By creating accessor methods for all your properties, you make it much easier to add data validation or new business logic, or make other changes to your objects later. Even if the current business requirements for your application involve no data validation of a given property, you should still implement that property with get and set functions so that you can add validation or business logic functionality in the future.
Always use accessor methods for your properties. Changes to business logic and data validation requirements in the future will be much easier to implement. Initializing Objects For many of the classes you will create, you will need to do some special setup when an object of that class is first instantiated.
You might need to fetch some information from a database or initialize some property values, for example. PHP will automatically call this special function when instantiating the object.
Note that you will need to update testdemo. December 19th, , Originally Posted by jminatel. Originally Posted by igtoroy. I'd appreciate your help. Thanks very much. March 26th, , I can't find the download for PHP6 anywhere on the web pages mentioned above.
Can anyone upload the php6 to ftp or file sharing sites like rapidshare and post the link here? April 25th, , BB code is On. Smilies are On. Trackbacks are Off. Pingbacks are On. Refbacks are Off.
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