accomplished by delivering oral presentations in class, at conferences, . NC Central Oral Speaking PDF: Very detailed advice on planning, presenting. Researching, planning and structuring an oral presentation is similar to the . capersterpmofor.gq pdf. PDF | Apologies to all those who requested this paper or bothered to open it. The ability to give an oral presentation is an important skill in a.
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During your time at university you will almost certainly have to give an oral presentation. Almost everyone who gives a presentation feels nervous beforehand. Effective Oral. Presentations. Les Perelman Organize your talk to fit allotted time. ▫ Talk as Verbal. Abstract or Summary. ▫ Cover only 3 or 4. ORAL. PRESENTATION. IN ENGLISH. How to get started, how to conclude, and suggestions for of your talk; and you'll give them a map of your presentation.
Ask for a show of hands for exam ple, in response t o a quest ion or, present inform at ion in such a way t hat t he audience can ident ify wit h it. You can give an anecdot e, unusual or surprising fact s, or an illust rat ion from real life could be em ployed here. I t is im port ant t o greet t he audience by saying som et hing like: Hello ladies and gent lem en.
Good aft er noon est eem ed guest s Good evening m em ber s of t he boar d Fellow colleagues Mr. C I nt r oduce one se lf, na m e , posit ion, a nd com pa ny Do t his not only t o give im port ant inform at ion so people can ident ify you but also t o est ablish your aut horit y on t he subj ect and t o allow t he audience t o see your point of view on t he subj ect you are a st udent , researcher, responsible for, direct or of, neophyt e, laym an.
My nam e is I 'm t he m anager of… I am a r esear cher fr om … I 've been w or king on t he subj ect now for X year s I 've had w ide exper ience in t he field of Good m or ning, m y nam e is Law r ence Couder c. I am a st udent at t he I NT and I w ould like t o t alk t o you t oday about som e of m y findings in a st udy I did on… Som et im es, especially when invit ed t o speak, t he host int roduces t he guest , gives t he sam e inform at ion as above and t hen gives t he floor t o t he guest speaker.
I am ver y pleased and pr oud t o int r oduce …w ho is….
D Give t it le a nd int r oduce subj e ct What exact ly are you going t o speak about? Give a rough idea or a working definit ion of t he subj ect. I plan t o speak about Today I 'm going t o t alk about The subj ect of m y pr esent at ion is I 've been asked t o give you an over view of Cult ural aspect s m ay be im port ant here; scient ist s want t o dem onst rat e t heir work and findings while m anagers and hum anit ies people want t o share ideas and reflect ions wit h t heir audience.
I t m ay be t he result of a desire t o persuade and convince. I t m ay be com parison of t wo or m ore product s, plans or proposals. Why are you going t o speak about it? I have chosen t o speak about t his because I w as asked t o speak about X because Have you set any lim it s on t he scope of your t alk?
What won't you speak about? I t m ay be very useful t o elim inat e cert ain areas before you st art so as t o avoid confusion or deviat ion from your m ain t ask. I t also prot ect s you from crit icism lat er for not covering cert ain aspect s or issues. Have you est im at ed t he t im e it will t ake?
I w ill not speak about I have lim it ed m y speech t o My t alk w ill last about 15 m inut es 3 Concerning time, professional people are very often pressed for time.
You m ay want t o give acknowledgem ent s here t oo. I f you have been sponsored, support ed or encouraged by a part icular firm , organizat ion, professor, et c. Your research and paper m ay have been t he work of a collaborat ive effort and you should acknowledge t his t oo giving t he nam es of all t he part icipant s.
At som e point you should ask a quest ion or som ehow t ry t o det erm ine t he at t it ude and knowledge of t he audience. How do t hey feel about t he subj ect? You will t hen have t o m odify t he cont ent s, as you never know exact ly what t o expect.
Have you ever hear d of? You m ay alr eady know … I feel sur e t hat som e of you… Ever y day you encount er To get t he audience's at t ent ion and perhaps t o find out where t hey are you could int roduce t he subj ect by saying: You've pr obably seen count less t im es You m ay have w onder ed E Give your obj e ct ive s pur pose , a im , goa ls The m ain purpose of an inform at ive speech is t o have t he audience underst and and rem em ber a cert ain am ount of inform at ion. You should t herefore have t wo purposes: The form er is t o inform: The lat t er is what you want t he audience t o t ake away wit h t hem aft er list ening t o you, what you want t hem t o do, what t hey should rem em ber.
My pur pose in doing t his paper is t o give you a solid backgr ound on t he subj ect of or al pr esent at ion skills so t hat in t he fut ur e, at t he I NT or elsew her e, you can deliver a successful speech in fr ont of a gr oup.
What I w ould like t o do t oday is t o explain t o illust r at e What I w ant m y list ener s t o get out of m y speech is I f t her e is one t hing I 'd like t o get acr oss t o you t oday it is t hat … Once you have est ablished your specific obj ect ives you m ay go on t o form ulat e your cont ent. F Announce your out line. You want t o keep t he out line sim ple so 2 or 3 m ain point s are usually enough.
Concerning gram m ar t he headings of t he out line should be of t he sam e gram m at ical form. I have divided m y pr esent at ion up int o Y par t s. In t he next sect ion I w ill explain In par t t hr ee, I am going t o show You should also let t he audience know at som e point in t he int roduct ion when and whet her t hey m ay ask quest ions. I 'd ask you t o save your quest ions for t he end. Ther e w ill be plent y of t im e at t he end of m y speech for a discussion. Please st op m e if you don't under st and any t hing I say but could you keep any specific quest ions unt il aft er I 've finished.
You should refer t o your t ransparency or out line. Now let us t ur n t o point one. Let us now m ove on t o t he second par t , w hich is, as I said ear lier ….
If you are giving a technical presentation a glossary might be useful and avoid unecessary interuptions. Always explain abbreviations and say acronyms giving their full name when you first mention them and be especially careful with the pronunciation.
One student actually began with definitions of key technical words that would come up in the speech. What do you think of that idea? Depending on the context or specific cultural environment you may or may not want to use a transparency. For example, in a professional corporate context it may look a bit scholastic to project an outline. However, in giving a paper, since the objective is didactic you could put it on a transparency and refer back to it from time to time.
A Cont e nt. What inform at ion should you give in your speech? All your inform at ion should support your purpose. I n m ost cases you will have t o lim it t he cont ent , as t im e is usually precious! B Qua nt it y How m uch inform at ion should you give? Enough t o clearly develop your ideas. C Se que ncing your ide a s. Here are a few possibilit ies for organizing your ideas: What ever sequencing you choose, t he headings should be all of t he sam e gram m at ical form.
D Ke e ping t he a udie nce 's a t t e nt ion The beginning and t he end or t he first and last part s of a t alk are what list eners will rem em ber best. Think of ways you can keep t he audience's at t ent ion t hroughout t he rest of t he speech.
See part I V. E Signpost ing or signa ling w he r e you a r e. That is t o say, first announce what you are going t o say give an exam ple, reform ulat e et c. This is very like verbal punct uat ion. I ndicat e when you have finished one point and t hen go on t o t he next one.
I t is redundant in t ext but very useful in oral present at ions. Experienced present ers will also clearly pause, change t heir st ance and t he pit ch of t heir voice as t hey m ove from one part of a present at ion t o anot her. List ing infor m a t ion List s are oft en a necessary evil. Vary your language whenever possible and avoid reading direct ly. Ther e ar e t hr ee t hings w e have t o consider: A, B, C.
Now let us look at t he fir st aspect w hich is That 's all I w ould like t o say about Now t hat w e've seen I f t here are alt ernat ive ways of looking at a t opic or proposal, out line t hem t o show you are fam iliar wit h t he different ways of dealing wit h a sit uat ion. Ther e seem t o be t w o possible w ays of dealing w it h t his We've looked at t his fr om t he point of view of t he m anufact ur er but w hat about if w e w er e t o A num ber of opt ions pr esent t hem selves at t his point I f what you are dealing wit h dem ands a com parison of st rengt hs and weaknesses indicat e clearly t he different aspect s and underline t he point s you feel are im port ant or secondary.
What exact ly ar e t he benefit s?
On t he plus side w e can add This is not t he only w eakness of t he plan We cannot ignor e t he pr oblem s t hat such an act ion w ould cr eat e We do not need t o concer n our selves w it h… Of lesser int er est ar e… To be cle a r a nd concr e t e. Use exam ples, rephrasing, sum m aries et c.: Now let 's t ake an exam ple.
An exam ple of t his can be found What w e need t o focus on To illust r at e t his… Let 's see t his t hr ough an exam ple. For inst ance, As I have alr eady said ear lier To sum m ar ize For now , suffice t o say So t hat concludes m y over view I quot e t he w or ds of I n conclusion I n t he w or ds of… Br iefly said Accor ding t o As Mr.
X says in his book To r ecap w hat w e've seen so far Ther e is a fam ous quot at ion t hat To e m pha size goes What is ver y significant is As you all m ay w ell know I 'd like t o em phasize t he fact t hat I t is gener ally accept ed t hat As you ar e pr obably aw ar e of A Cont e nt The end or t he conclusion of your t alk should include four part s: Alt ernat ives are: Then you should give som e kind of conclusion.
That is t o say you should give a m essage t hat logically com es out of t he ideas developed in your speech. This could be a com m ent ary, t he lessons learned, som e recom m endat ions, or t he next st eps. You could also m ake a call t o act ion; t he audience should have t o do som et hing. Thirdly, t hank t he audience for being t here. Finally, ask for quest ions and com m ent s or invit e a discussion. I f you choose t he form er, you put yourself in a superior posit ion com pared t o t he audience and should be considered as an expert.
You will need t o be very prepared int ellect ually and psychologically t o t ransfer cont rol t o t he audience and be able t o answer any quest ions. However, in t he case of t he lat t er, you put yourself m ore or less on equal t erm s wit h t he audience and do not have t o be t he expert wit h all t he answers! The audience m ay have som e clear ideas or som e pract ical knowledge about t he subj ect t hem selves!
Nat urally you need t o signpost t he end of your t alk. Oral communication and presentations are also a regular part of managing and communicating with your employees. You'll likely plan presentations to share company goals, discuss changes and even offer some employee training for new tools you use. Plan the Presentation Planning a presentation is similar to planning a business communication. It requires careful analysis and research. The content and style of an oral presentation control the intent.
Straightforward statements of information are best. The typical reasons for giving a presentation are to inform, persuade, motivate and entertain. You need to capture your audience's attention and maintain their interest thorough the entire oral presentation by defining the purpose clearly.
Write the Presentation When beginning to organize your oral presentation, here are five fundamentals to put into action. Focus on your audience as you define the main concept. What is the one piece of information you want your audience to remember about your presentation? Tailor the scope. Present the material in the time allotted. Select your approach. Use simplicity in delivering your presentation. Although these tem- plates are convenient when they combine tasteful choices of fonts, colours, and background, they force users into a very limited set of layouts that tend to be accepted as the only possibilities.
One of these layouts has become a signa- ture feature of visuals developed using the programmes: the bulleted list. This standard feature of the most popular slide show presentation programmes from their earliest versions has imposed, as the default layout of slides, a centred title followed by a list of words or short sentences each preceded by a bullet.
When required, the bulleted list can feature more than one level of bullets. The title-and-bulleted-list format has become the unchallenged standard format to present, visually, just about any kind of project, argument, or analy- sis.
The consequences of the bulleted-list conformism are daunting. Bullet lists should, in principle, be used only to display enumerations, i. The bullet list is not suitable to summarize what would be the successive paragraphs of the text of the talk or anything that would be understood as an enumeration while it is not. What is more, bulleted lists are a particularly poor form of visualization. It often looks more like a set of poorly designed cheat sheets than like actual visual aids.
The cause of the persistent poor quality of most visuals lies in the lack of skills. At best, users have followed training sessions or tutorials that, unfortunately, tend to focus exclusively on how to use one particular software package and all its fancy features, leaving aside even the most basic notions of visualization, aesthetics, semiotics or sense-making.
Education is techno- logically centred, with a strong emphasis on software operation and features. As a result, creating visual aids is seen as a process that starts from the tools, from the programme that one uses and was trained for.
Given that these tools encourage a limited range of options within their default templates, the ten- dency to use only these options is self-reinforced. The creativity is so constrained that it is difficult to produce anything but very common, unsophis- ticated visuals that will rarely achieve the full potential of visual enhancement.
Visuals should be what the speaker wants them to be. Visuals must be conceived on the basis of what the speaker would like to show at different points in the speech, not as a template to be filled as best as possible. Choices should be made with one central aim in mind: visuals should enhance the talk. Visuals must then be imagined with a very open mind, not in terms of whatever the computer programme of choice does most easily, but in terms of what the speaker wants to show the audience during the pres- entation.
Each slide is a blank canvas where one must decide to set-up a layout that best serves the message. If working with standard presentation software, it is best to start from a blank presentation and build up the desired visuals gradually, importing pictures, inserting text, draw- ing shapes as required; not obediently filling a template as imposed.
Guidelines for efficient visuals Once the idea that visuals can be something other than a bulleted list is accept- ed, the range of possibilities is only limited by creativity and imagination and a bit of astuteness as required.
Every part of the talk that has been identified as requiring visual aids must be treated individually. We could call them scenes. Each scene will require a specific set of visuals. The set can be just one static slide, or it can be a succession of steps within one slide, or it can be a succes- sion of slides. It is important to dose the amount of visuals in connection with the corresponding part of the talk so as to ensure that the two blend into an integrated presentation. These principles relate to cognitive and technical considerations.
With just a bit of experience, it is quite simple to avoid exceeding the cognitive comfort zone of the audience. The number of slides should be kept to a minimum, dazzling an audience with a quick succes- sion of visuals will only create confusion. What is shown on each slide must be comfortably legible, even if the screen is much smaller than expected; text that is too small, colour combinations that are insufficiently contrasted must be avoided.
What is shown on each slide must be effortlessly understood; cryptic messages or unnecessarily complex visuals should be avoided. Slides must not Using visuals to enhance oral presentations in an academic context be overloaded; if a lot of content must be fitted, it is best to use a succession of slides rather than try to squeeze it all on what becomes a microfilm-type of visual.
Visual noise and interference must be muted and eliminated; most templates include logos and background images that simply parasite the vis- uals in ways that impede their perception by the audience by reducing the signal-to-noise ratio.
Each visual can be completely different from the others, yet some stylistic consistency should run across the whole presentation; every- one should develop their own style, and that style should be at least vaguely recognizable.
In keeping with the central aim to enhance the talk not disturb it or com- pete with it , visuals must favour meaning, clarity, and concision. Visuals all too easily create stress and irritation in the audience, when they should be soothing and enlightening.
One slide should not illustrate more than one idea or one group of ideas there is no point in piling up ideas on a single slide sim- ply because there is room left—unlike paper, there is no cost-per-slide when projecting visuals. It is also good practice to display, as a last slide, a summary of the main argument of the presentation.
This is particularly important if the presentation is followed by a discussion. The most common computer programmes used to prepare visual aids are ever more sophisticated, yet they are surprisingly limited when it comes to anything out-of-the-box, i. Animations i. Yet, with a bit of imagination and per- severance, the existing features can be gamed and bent to produce the intended effect. Displaying the PDF in full screen mode will limit the visuals to static slides, with no transitions or animations, but it will at least pro- vide a robust set of slides that will bring a fair level of enhancement to the talk.
One key technical reality to take into consideration is related to display technology. The screens that we use on our personal computers, laptops and tablets rely on extremely effective technologies providing excellent comfort and rendering of colours. The equipment used to display visuals in conference rooms and lecture halls relies on very differing, and much less effective tech- nologies. In particular, data projectors are very problematic.